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        Food Additives

        Food additive refers to a kind of natural or artificially synthetic chemicals which can improve the sensory properties (color, smell, taste) of food and food quality. To the adult foods, we can add some additives according to the China's health standards. However, the food additives should be strictly controlled to be applied to infant foods. Infant body has a relative weak detoxification mechanisms or protection mechanisms, being likely to cause the accumulation of large quantities of chemical substances. The World Health Organization and many countries have specified that food additives are not allowed to be supplemented to the infant food. Children's food should also be limited from using of food additives such as saccharin, colorings and flavors. Especially, for the food of baby of less than 12-week-old such as infant formula and cereal products, they should be completely free of food additives.

        Classification of the food additives: Food additives can be divided into two categories including natural food additives and synthetic food additives. Natural food additive is obtained through using animal and plant or microbial metabolites as raw materials and further extraction. Chemical synthetic additives are obtained through de novo synthesis using chemical substances as raw materials. According to the usage purpose and the nature of chemicals, food additives can be divided into various categories, namely:
        (1) acid, alkali, salt;
        (2) bulking agent;
        (3) antioxidant and synergist;
        (4) the carrier solvent ;
        (5) edible pigment;
        (6) emulsifier, stabilizer and thickener;
        (7) enzyme preparation for food processing;
        (8) antifoaming agent;
        (9) the flavorant
        (10) bleaching agent;
        (11) color former;
        (12) quality improver;
        (13) sweetener;
        (14) preservative;
        (15) sour agent;
        (16) anti-caking agent;
        (17) coagulant and others.

        Food additives are not basic ingredients of food. The role of food additives in baked foods:
        ① it can facilitate the preservation of food, prevent the corruption and deterioration of food. A variety of fresh food, such as vegetable oils, margarine, biscuits, bread, cakes, moon cake, etc., if not subject to timely processing or improper processing, often get corrupted and deteriorated, causing great losses. Antiseptic, antifungal agents, antioxidants can be applied to prevent the food spoilage caused by microorganisms and oxidation, thus extending the shelf life of food.
        ② It can be used to improve the sensory quality of food. The color, smell, taste, shape and texture of food are all important indicators for measuring the quality of the food. After the food processing, some are faded, some can get discoloration, such as birthday cake of mounting patterns; some food can get worsen taste and changed flavor, texture and mouthfeel; Appropriate application of emulsifiers, thickeners, coloring agents, flavors, sweeteners, sour agents, flavor agents, quality improvers and leavening agents can significantly improve the sensory quality of food to meet the different requirements of the people.
        ③ It can be used for maintaining or improving the nutritional value of food. Food processing often may often cause some loss of nutrients. From this perspective, during food processing, addition of appropriate amount of some kind of nutrients supplement belonging to the natural range of food nutrition can greatly improve the nutritional value of food. The applications of food preservatives and antioxidants, while preventing corrupt deterioration food, also play a significant role in maintaining the nutritional value.
        ④ increase the variety and convenience of the food. There are dazzling variety of food on the market for consumers to choose with most of them being dependent on anti-corruption, anti-oxidation, emulsification, thickening, and the results of different coloring, flavoring, seasonings and even combination of a variety of other food additives. It is these various kinds of foods that give great convenience to the many people's lives and work.
        ⑤ Application of flour treatment agents, thickening stabilizers and emulsifiers in food processing can facilitate the food processing operations and the mechanization and automation of the production.
        ⑥ It can be used to meet the different requirements of people. For example, patients of diabetes can’t eat sugar; then you can use non-nutritive sweeteners or low-calorie sweetener to manufacture sugar-free food and low-sugar low-energy food.

        The hazards of food additives; food additives, in addition to the beneficial effects mentioned above, may also have certain dangers, especially for some species of them which have already contained certain toxicity themselves. Particularly in recent times, people have been more and more concerned about the potential hazards of long-term intake of food additives may bring. The most attention and worry currently are still on the potential harm caused by the potential carcinogenic and teratogenic effect of some synthetic food pigment. Sodium nitrite has long been applied as the color fixative and color former of meat products. In addition to its capability of endowing meat products with beautiful, bright red color and enhanced meat flavor, the more important effect is its preservative effect which can inhibit various kinds of anaerobic Clostridium, especially Clostridium botulinum, preventing botulism. Once botulism occurs, there is a possibility of danger to human life. Therefore, sodium nitrite has an important role in meat processing and preservation.

        However, it is now not only realized that it itself is of great toxicity, and further found that nitrite can react with secondary amines to generate nitrosamines with strong carcinogenic effect. So far there has been not yet of ideal item that can act as substitute of sodium nitrite, there has been also no evidence for human consumption of meat products in low doses that causes cancer, therefore, currently, people are mainly take measures such as reducing the amount, strictly controlling the residual amount and applying ascorbic acid simultaneously to prevent the generation of nitrosamines, reducing the threat it brings. Therefore, it is still allowed to be applied currently around the world under the precondition of being subject to strict control of its usage range, usage amount and residues amount.

        The safe application of food additives: the most important features for food additives are safety and effectiveness. Among them, security is more important. To guarantee the safe application of food additives, people must conduct safety evaluation on them. The safety evaluation is comprehensive in accordance with national standards and sanitary requirements and based on the producing technology, the physical and chemical properties, quality standards, effect, scope, amount, toxicological evaluation and testing methods of the food additives. Among them, the most important indicator is the toxicological evaluation. Every country mostly state it in the form of regulations such as the use of food additives health standards to determine the permitted varieties, purpose, scope, the maximum usage and / or the maximum residue levels of the food additives. Since most of the existing food additives and food additives have been all subject to or must be subject to rigorous toxicological tests and safety evaluation. Therefore, it can be considered that now we have reduced the harm of food additives to a minimum Level. It is worth noting, as long as strict complying the relevant provisions stated in "food additives health standards" (GB 2460-1996) for proper use of food additives, not only their safety can be guaranteed, but also their beneficial effect can be maximized in the same time. We can also maximize the elimination of their potential adverse effects to the human being.

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        Structure Chemical Name CAS MF
        Astaxanthin Astaxanthin 472-61-7 C40H52O4
        Poly(propylene glycol) Poly(propylene glycol) 25322-69-4 CH4
        Stevioside Stevioside 57817-89-7 C38H60O18
        Polyacrylamide Polyacrylamide 9003-05-8 C3H5NO
        Tragacanth gum Tragacanth gum 9000-65-1 NULL
        Silicone oil Silicone oil 63148-62-9 C6H18OSi2
        Casein Casein 9000-71-9 C81H125N22O39P
        Petrolatum Petrolatum 8009-03-8 C15H15N
        Gelatin Gelatin 9000-70-8 C6H12O6
        LOCUST BEAN GUM LOCUST BEAN GUM 9000-40-2 C10H11ClN2O2
        6-Methylcoumarin 6-Methylcoumarin 92-48-8 C10H8O2
        Aluminum ammonium sulfate Aluminum ammonium sulfate 7784-25-0 AlH4NO8S2
        POTASSIUM NITRITE POTASSIUM NITRITE 7758-09-0 KNO2
        Thiamine hydrochloride Thiamine hydrochloride 67-03-8 C12H18Cl2N4OS
        Pyridoxine hydrochloride Pyridoxine hydrochloride 58-56-0 C8H12ClNO3
        Ethyl 3-methyl-3-phenylglycidate Ethyl 3-methyl-3-phenylglycidate 77-83-8 C12H14O3
        Manganese gluconate Manganese gluconate 6485-39-8 C12H22MnO14
        Dodecanamide Dodecanamide 1120-16-7 C12H25NO
        Glucose oxidase Glucose oxidase 9001-37-0 NULL
        L-Lysine-L-aspartate L-Lysine-L-aspartate 27348-32-9 C10H21N3O6
        D-Tartaric acid D-Tartaric acid 147-71-7 C4H6O6
        Mineral oil Mineral oil 8042-47-5 N/A
        Ascorbyl Palmitate Ascorbyl Palmitate 137-66-6 C22H38O7
        Aspartame Aspartame 22839-47-0 C14H18N2O5
        N-LAUROYLSARCOSINE N-LAUROYLSARCOSINE 97-78-9 C15H29NO3
        METHYL 2-OCTYNOATE METHYL 2-OCTYNOATE 111-12-6 C9H14O2
        alpha-Amylase alpha-Amylase 9000-90-2 NULL
        Thickening agent Thickening agent
        Polyethylene Polyethylene 9002-88-4 C2H4
        Tea polyphenol Tea polyphenol 84650-60-2 C17H19N3O
        Allyl cyclohexylpropionate Allyl cyclohexylpropionate 2705-87-5 C12H20O2
        Butyl butyryllactate Butyl butyryllactate 7492-70-8 C11H20O4
        ALPHA-PINENE ALPHA-PINENE 2437-95-8 C10H16
        Guar gum Guar gum 9000-30-0 C10H14N5Na2O12P3
        CAPSANTHIN CAPSANTHIN 465-42-9 C40H56O3
        3,7-Dimethyl-7-hydroxyoctanal 3,7-Dimethyl-7-hydroxyoctanal 107-75-5 C10H20O2
        Pectinase Pectinase 9032-75-1 C18H37N(CH3)2
        Ethyl maltol Ethyl maltol 4940-11-8 C7H8O3
        sec-Butylamine sec-Butylamine 13952-84-6 C4H11N
        Peroxidase Peroxidase 9003-99-0 NULL
        Glyceryl monostearate Glyceryl monostearate 31566-31-1 C21H42O4
        GELLAN GUM GELLAN GUM 71010-52-1
        POLYSTYRENE-B-POLYBUTADIENE-B-POLYSTYRENE POLYSTYRENE-B-POLYBUTADIENE-B-POLYSTYRENE 9003-55-8 C36H42X2
        Neotame Neotame 165450-17-9 C20H30N2O5
        Ethyl vanillin Ethyl vanillin 121-32-4 C9H10O3
        Nonivamide Nonivamide 2444-46-4 C17H27NO3
        POLYISOBUTYLENE POLYISOBUTYLENE 9003-27-4 C4H8
        3,3,5-Trimethylcyclohexanol 3,3,5-Trimethylcyclohexanol 116-02-9 C9H18O
        2-Mercaptoethanol 2-Mercaptoethanol 60-24-2 C2H6OS
        Benzyl ether Benzyl ether 103-50-4 C14H14O
        2-Acetonaphthone 2-Acetonaphthone 93-08-3 C12H10O
        Allyl hexanoate Allyl hexanoate 123-68-2 C9H16O2
        3-(4-ISOPROPYLPHENYL)ISOBUTYRALDEHYDE 3-(4-ISOPROPYLPHENYL)ISOBUTYRALDEHYDE 103-95-7 C13H18O
        L-Lysine dihydrochloride L-Lysine dihydrochloride 657-26-1 C6H16Cl2N2O2
        2-Ethylhexyl 4-hydroxybenzoate 2-Ethylhexyl 4-hydroxybenzoate 5153-25-3 C15H22O3
        Dodecyl 4-hydroxybenzoate Dodecyl 4-hydroxybenzoate 2664-60-0 C19H30O3
        Lipase Lipase 9001-62-1 C11H9N3NaO2+
        Dimethylbenzylcarbinyl acetate Dimethylbenzylcarbinyl acetate 151-05-3 C12H16O2
        D(+)-2-Octanol D(+)-2-Octanol 6169-06-8 C8H18O
        Polyvinylpyrrolidone cross-linked Polyvinylpyrrolidone cross-linked 25249-54-1 C6H9NO
        Calcium phosphate monobasic Calcium phosphate monobasic 7758-23-8 CaH4O8P2
        Sodium dithionite Sodium dithionite 7775-14-6 Na2O4S2
        Acesulfame Acesulfame 33665-90-6 C4H5NO4S
        D-gamma-Tocopherol D-gamma-Tocopherol 54-28-4 C28H48O2
        ARABINOGALACTAN ARABINOGALACTAN 9036-66-2 C20H36O14
        ε-Caprolactone ε-Caprolactone 502-44-3 C6H10O2
        Propyl gallate Propyl gallate 121-79-9 C10H12O5
        CINNAMALDEHYDE DIETHYL ACETAL CINNAMALDEHYDE DIETHYL ACETAL 7148-78-9 C13H18O2
        1,2-Benzisothiazol-3(2H)-one 1,2-Benzisothiazol-3(2H)-one 2634-33-5 C7H5NOS
        D-Xylose D-Xylose 31178-70-8 C5H10O5
        (S)-(+)-1-Amino-2-propanol (S)-(+)-1-Amino-2-propanol 2799-17-9 C3H9NO
        Arabic gum Arabic gum 9000-01-5 N/A
        Sorbic acid Sorbic acid 110-44-1 C6H8O2
        Sodium caseinate Sodium caseinate 9005-46-3 N/A
        Linolenic acid Linolenic acid 463-40-1 C18H30O2
        Konjac glucomannan Konjac glucomannan 37220-17-0 Null
        alpha-Amylcinnamaldehyde alpha-Amylcinnamaldehyde 122-40-7 C14H18O
        Zinc lactate Zinc lactate 16039-53-5 C6H10O6Zn
        5,8-Dihydroxy-2-[(1R)-1-hydroxy-4-methyl-pent-3-enyl]naphthalene-1,4-dione 5,8-Dihydroxy-2-[(1R)-1-hydroxy-4-methyl-pent-3-enyl]naphthalene-1,4-dione 517-89-5 C16H16O5
        Allyl heptanoate Allyl heptanoate 142-19-8 C10H18O2
        Hemin Hemin 16009-13-5 C34H32ClFeN4O4
        2'-Hydroxy-3-phenylpropiophenone 2'-Hydroxy-3-phenylpropiophenone 3516-95-8 C15H14O2
        Polyethylene-polypropylene glycol Polyethylene-polypropylene glycol 9003-11-6 C5H10O2
        Taurine Taurine 107-35-7 C2H7NO3S
        Paraffin wax Paraffin wax 8002-74-2 C21H27NO3
        Mogroside V Mogroside V 88901-36-4 C60H102O29
        beta-Cyclodextrin hydrate beta-Cyclodextrin hydrate 68168-23-0 C42H70O35
        Tetrapotassium hexacyanoferrate trihydrate Tetrapotassium hexacyanoferrate trihydrate 13943-58-3 C24H6Fe4K4N24O3-8
        POLY(VINYL ACETATE) POLY(VINYL ACETATE) 9003-20-7 C4H6O2
        Dilauryl thiodipropionate Dilauryl thiodipropionate 123-28-4 C30H58O4S
        BUTYL SORBATE BUTYL SORBATE 7367-78-4 C10H16O2
        Erythorbic Acid Erythorbic Acid 89-65-6 C6H8O6
        gentian root extract gentian root extract
        Calcium diascorbate Calcium diascorbate 5743-27-1 C12H14CaO12
        (+)-BORNEOL (+)-BORNEOL 464-43-7 C10H18O
        Ethoxyquin Ethoxyquin 91-53-2 C14H19NO
        ISOPULEGOL ISOPULEGOL 89-79-2 C10H18O
        Octyl paraben Octyl paraben 1219-38-1 C15H22O3
        PIPERITONE PIPERITONE 89-81-6 C10H16O
        FOOD RED NO 3 ALUMINUM LAKE FOOD RED NO 3 ALUMINUM LAKE 12227-78-0 C60H27AlI12O15
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