- Melting point:
- -26 °C
- Boiling point:
- 179 °C
- 1.044 g/cm 3 at 20 °C(lit.)
- vapor density
- 3.7 (vs air)
- vapor pressure
- 4 mm Hg ( 45 °C)
- 2127 | BENZALDEHYDE
- refractive index
- Flash point:
- 145 °F
- storage temp.
- room temp
- H2O: soluble100mg/mL
- 14.90(at 25℃)
- Like almonds.
- 5.9 (1g/l, H2O)
- explosive limit
- Water Solubility
- <0.01 g/100 mL at 19.5 ºC
- Air Sensitive
- JECFA Number
- Stable. Combustible. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents, strong acids, reducing agents, steam. Air, light and moisture-sensitive.
- CAS DataBase Reference
- 100-52-7(CAS DataBase Reference)
- NIST Chemistry Reference
- EPA Substance Registry System
- Benzaldehyde (100-52-7)
- Risk and Safety Statements
|RIDADR||UN 1990 9/PG 3
|Autoignition Temperature||374 °F|
|HS Code||2912 21 00|
|Toxicity||LD50 in rats, guinea pigs (mg/kg): 1300, 1000 orally (Jenner)|
Benzaldehyde price More Price(37)
|Manufacturer||Product number||Product description||CAS number||Packaging||Price||Updated||Buy|
|Sigma-Aldrich||1050905||Benzaldehyde Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material||100-52-7||3x1ml||$63.7||2019-12-02||Buy|
|Sigma-Aldrich||09143||Benzaldehyde analytical standard||100-52-7||25ml-f||$214||2019-12-02||Buy|
|TCI Chemical||B2379||Benzaldehyde >98.0%(GC)||100-52-7||500g||$26||2019-12-02||Buy|
|Alfa Aesar||030749||Benzaldehyde, 98%||100-52-7||1kg||$41||2019-12-02||Buy|
|Alfa Aesar||030749||Benzaldehyde, 98%||100-52-7||3kg||$76.5||2019-12-02||Buy|
Benzaldehyde Chemical Properties,Uses,Production
descriptionBenzaldehyde is an organic compound, and is synthetized by the way that the hydrogen of benzene is substituted by aldehyde. It is the most simple, and also the most commonly used industrial aromatic aldehyde. It is a colorless liquid at room temperature and has a special almond odor. Benzaldehyde is a compound that aldehyde is directly linked to the phenyl group, because it has a similar bitter almond flavor. Benzaldehyde widely exists in plant, especially in the Rosaceae plants. It is mainly in the form of glycosides in plant stem bark, leaves or seeds, such as amygdalin, bitter almond, cherry, laurel, peach. Benzaldehyde is naturally in bitter almond oil, patchouli oil, hyacinth oil, cananga oil. The compound is also in the nutlets and nuts, and exists in the form of Amygdalin, which is combination of glycosides. The chemical properties of Benzaldehyde is similar to that of aliphatic aldehydes, but It is also different. Benzaldehyde cannot reduce fehling reagent. When the reducing fat is used to reduce the benzaldehyde, the main products are benzene methanol, four substituted for the ortho-glycol and two-phenyl ethylene glycol. In the presence of potassium cyanide, two molecules of benzaldehyde form benzoin by acceptance the hydrogen atom. The substitution reaction in aromatic nucleus of benzaldehyde is mainly the meta-position product. For example, the main product is the m-nitrobenzaldehyde , when benzaldehyde is nitrated.
Uses1. Benzaldehyde is an important raw material for medicine, dyestuff, perfume and resin industry. It also can be used as solvent, plasticizer and low temperature lubricant. In essence, it is mainly used for the deployment of food flavor. A small amount of benzaldehyde is daily use in flavor and flavor of tobacco. In spite of being widely used as commercial food condiment and industrial solvents, the main use of benzyl alcohol is still used to synthesize a variety of other compounds from pharmaceuticals to plastic additives. Benzyl alcohol is an important intermediate product in the production of perfumes, spices, and some aniline dyes.
Mandelic acid was synthesized by benzaldehyde as the starting reagent: With the first hydrocyanic acid reacts with benzaldehyde, then mandelonitrile hydrolyzed to Racemic mandelic acid. Glacialist LaChepelle and Stillman reported Ice crystallization is inhibited by benzaldehyde and aldehydes ice in 1966, so as to prevent the thick frost formation (Depth Hoar). This process can prevent snowslide caused by the instability of the snow cover. However, this compound has not been used extensively, because of the destruction of vegetation and polluted water sources.
2.It is mainly used for the preparation of flavors, such as almond, cherry, peach, nuts, etc., the amount is up to 40%. As aromatizing agent canned cherry syrup, adding amount is sugar 3mL/kg.
3. Pharmaceutical, dyestuff, spice intermediates. For the production of oxygen based benzene formaldehyde, lauric acid, lauric aldehyde, malachite, benzyl benzoate, benzyl aniline and benzylidene acetone etc.. Used to tune the soap flavor, edible essence, etc.
4. As the head of the special aroma, it is used trace formula for fragrance, such as lilac, white, violet, jasmine, acacia, sunflower, sweet plum, orange flower, Tofu pudding etc.. Also it is used in soap. Also it can be used as edible spices for almond, coconut cream, berries, cherries, apricots, peaches, plums, walnuts, and vanilla bean, spicy flavor. Wine with flavors such as rum, brandy, etc.
5. Benzaldehyde is an intermediate of herbicide resistance, plant growth regulator, and anti-amine.
6. Used as a reagent for the determination of ozone, phenol, alkaloid and methylene. Used in the preparation of spices.
ProductionBenzaldehyde can be prepared by a variety of ways.
- Obtained from natural essential oils by fractionation.
- Ozone oxidation and thiourea reduction reaction of natural cinnamon oil (containing cinnamaldehyde constituent 80% or more)
- Catalytic oxidation of Toluene
- Hydrolyze dichloromethane under alkaline conditions.
reactionsBenzaldehyde can be slowly oxidized to benzoic acid in air, so a small amount of hydroquinone is often added to prevent its oxidation.
There is no α-H atom in the benzaldehyde molecule. Disproportionation reaction(Cannizarro reaction) may occur under the action of concentrated alkali:
Heating benzaldehyde in the presence of catalyst of cyanide ion, it will occur bimolecular condensation:
Chemical PropertiesBenzaldehyde is themain, characteristic component of bitter almond oil. It occurs in many other essential oils and is a colorless liquid with a bitter almond odor. In the absence of inhibitors, benzaldehyde undergoes autoxidation to perbenzoic acid, which reacts with a second molecule of benzaldehyde to yield benzoic acid.
Hydrogenation of benzaldehyde yields benzyl alcohol, and condensation with aliphatic aldehydes leads to additional fragrance substances or their unsaturated intermediates.Unsaturated araliphatic acids are obtained through the Perkin reaction, for example, the reaction with acetic anhydride to give cinnamic acid.
Benzaldehyde is prepared by hydrolysis of benzal chloride, for example, in acidic media in the presence of a catalyst such as ferric chloride or in alkaline media with aqueous sodium carbonate. Part of the commercially available benzaldehyde originates from a technical process for phenol. In this process, benzaldehyde is a by-product in the oxidation, in air, of toluene to benzoic acid.
Benzaldehyde is used in aroma compositions for its bitter almond odor. It is the starting material for a large number of araliphatic fragrance and flavor materials.
Chemical PropertiesBenzaldehyde is a colorless to yellow, oily liquid with an odor of bitter almonds. Benzaldehyde is commercially available in two grades: (i) pure benzaldehyde and (ii) and double-distilled benzaldehyde. The latter has applications in the pharmaceutical, perfume, and fl avor industries. Benzaldehyde may contain trace amounts of chlorine, water, benzoic acid, benzyl chloride, benzyl alcohol, and/or nitrobenzene. Benzaldehyde is ignited relatively easily on contact with hot surfaces. This has been attributed to the property of very low auto-ignition temperature. Benzaldehyde also undergoes autoxidation in air and is liable to self-heat. Benzaldehyde exists in nature, occurring in combined and uncombined forms in many plants. Benzaldehyde is also the main constituent of the essential oils obtained by pressing the kernels of peaches, cherries, apricots, and other fruits. Benzaldehyde is released into the environment in emissions from combustion processes, such as gasoline and diesel engines, incinerators, and wood burning. It is formed in the atmosphere through photochemical oxidation of toluene and other aromatic hydrocarbons. Benzaldehyde is corrosive to gray and ductile cast iron (10% solution), and all concentrations of lead. However, pure benzaldehyde is not corrosive to cast iron. Benzaldehyde does not attack most of the common metals, like stainless steels, aluminum, aluminum bronze, nickel and nickel-base alloys, bronze, naval brass, tantalum, titanium, and zirconium. On decomposition, benzaldehyde releases peroxybenzoic acid and benzoic acidBenzaldehyde is used in perfumes, soaps, foods, drinks, and other products; as a solvent for oils, resins, some cellulose ethers, cellulose acetate, and cellulose nitrate. The uses of benzaldehyde in industries are extensive. For instance, in the production of derivatives that are employed in the perfume and fl avor industries, like cinnamaldehyde, cinnamyl alcohol, cinnamic acid, benzylacetone, and benzyl benzoate, in the production of triphenylmethane dyes and the acridine dye, benzofl avin; as an intermediate in the pharmaceutical industry, for instance, to make chloramphenicol, ephedrin, and ampicillin, as an intermediate to make benzoin, benzylamine, benzyl alcohol, mandelic acid, and 4-phenyl-3-buten-2-one (benzylideneacetone), in photochemistry, as a corrosion inhibitor and dyeing auxiliary, in the electroplating industry, and in the production of agricultural chemicals
OccurrencePresent as cyanuric glucoside (amygdalin) in bitter almond, peach, apricot kernel and other Prunus species; amygdalin is also present in various parts of the following plants: Sambucus nigra, Chrysophyllum arlen, Anacyclus officinarnm, Anacyclus pedunculatus, Davallia brasiliensis, Lacuma deliciosa, Lacuma multiflora and others; free benzaldehyde has been reported found in several essential oils: hyacinth, citronella, orris, cinnamon, sassafras, labdanum and patchouli. Reported found in strawberry jam, leek (raw) (Allium porrum L.), crispbread, Camembert, Gruyere de Comte, provolone cheeses, black tea, salted and pickled plum, cooked trassi, Bantu beer, red sage (Texas sage) (S. coccinea Juss. Ex Murr.), arrack, scallop, hog plum (Spondias mombins L.), chekur (Alpinia sessilis Kon. = Kaemferia galanga) and other natural sources.
UsesBenzaldehyde is used as an intermediatein the production of flavoring chemicals,such as cinnamaldehyde, cinnamalalcohol,and amyl- and hexylcinnamaldehyde for perfume,soap, and food flavor; synthetic penicillin,ampicillin, and ephedrine; and as araw material for the herbicide Avenge. Itoccurs in nature in the seeds of almonds,apricots, cherries, and peaches. It occurs intrace amounts in corn oil.
UsesManufacture of dyes, perfumery, cinnamic and mandelic acids, as solvent; in flavors.
UsesBenzaldehyde is a flavoring agent which is liquid and colorless, and has an almond-like odor. it has a hot (burning) taste. it is oxidized to benzoic acid when exposed to air and deteriorates under light. it is miscible in volatile oils, fixed oils, ether, and alcohol; it is spar- ingly soluble in water. it is obtained by chemical synthesis and by natural occurrence in oils of bitter almond, peach, and apricot kernel. it is also termed benzoic aldehyde.
DefinitionA yellow organic oil with a distinct almondlike odor. Benzenecarbaldehyde undergoes the reactions characteristic of aldehydes and may be synthesized in the laboratory by the usual methods of aldehyde synthesis. It is used as a food flavoring and in the manufacture of dyes and antibiotics, and can be readily manufactured by the chlorination of methylbenzene and the subsequent hydrolysis of (dichloromethyl) benzene: C6H5CH3 + Cl2 →C6H5CHCl2 C6H5CHCl2 + 2H2O →C6H5CH(OH)2+ 2HCl C6H5CH(OH)2 →C6H5CHO + H2O.
Aroma threshold valuesDetection: 100 ppb to 4.6 ppm; Recognition: 330 ppb to 4.1 ppm.
Taste threshold valuesTaste characteristics at 50 ppm: sweet, oily, almond, cherry, nutty and woody
General DescriptionA clear colorless to yellow liquid with a bitter almond odor. Flash point near 145°F. More denser than water and insoluble in water. Hence sinks in water. Vapors are heavier than air. The primary hazard is to the environment. Immediate steps should be taken to limit spread to the environment. Easily penetrates the soil to contaminate groundwater and nearby waterways. Used in flavoring and perfume making.
Air & Water ReactionsOxidizes in air to form benzoic acid, which is moderately toxic by ingestion. Insoluble in water.
Reactivity ProfileA nontoxic, combustible liquid, reacts with oxidizing reagents. Benzaldehyde must be blanketed with an inert gas at all times since Benzaldehyde is oxidized readily by air to benzoic acid [Kirk-Othmer, 3rd ed., Vol. 3, 1978, p. 736]. In contact with strong acids or bases Benzaldehyde will undergo an exothermic condensation reaction [Sax, 9th ed., 1996, p. 327]. A violent reaction was observed on contact with peroxyacids (peroxyformic acid) [DiAns, J. et al., Ber., 1915, 48, p. 1136]. An explosion occurred when pyrrolidine, Benzaldehyde, and propionic acid were heated to form porphyrins.
Health HazardBenzaldehyde exhibited low to moderate toxicityin test animals, the poisoning effectdepending on dosage. Ingestion of 50–60 mLmay be fatal to humans. Oral intake of a largedose can cause tremor, gastrointestinal pain,and kidney damage. Animal experimentsindicated that ingestion of this compoundby guinea pigs caused tremor, bleeding fromsmall intestine, and an increase in urine volume;in rats, ingestion resulted in somnolenceand coma.
LD50 value, oral (guinea pigs): 1000 mg/kg
LD50 value, oral (rats): 1300 mg/kg
A 500-mg amount for a 24-hour periodresulted in moderate skin irritation in rabbits.Because of its low toxicity, high boilingpoint, and low vapor pressure, the healthhazard to humans from exposure to benzaldehydeis very low.
Fire HazardHIGHLY FLAMMABLE: Will be easily ignited by heat, sparks or flames. Vapors may form explosive mixtures with air. Vapors may travel to source of ignition and flash back. Most vapors are heavier than air. They will spread along ground and collect in low or confined areas (sewers, basements, tanks). Vapor explosion hazard indoors, outdoors or in sewers. Runoff to sewer may create fire or explosion hazard. Containers may explode when heated. Many liquids are lighter than water.
Chemical ReactivityReactivity with Water: No reaction; Reactivity with Common Materials: No reactions; Stability During Transport: Stable; Neutralizing Agents for Acids and Caustics: Not pertinent; Polymerization: Not pertinent; Inhibitor of Polymerization: Not pertinent.
Safety ProfilePoison by ingestion and intraperitoneal routes. Moderately toxic by subcutaneous route. An allergen. Acts as a feeble local anesthetic. Local contact may cause contact dermatitis. Causes central nervous system depression in small doses and convulsions in larger doses. A skin irritant. Questionable carcinogen with experimental tumorigenic data. Mutation data reported. Combustible liquid. To fight fire, use water (may be used as a blanket), alcohol, foam, dry chemical. A strong reducing agent. Reacts violently with peroxyformic acid and other oxidizers. See also ALDEHYDES.
Chemical SynthesisNatural benzaldehyde is obtained by extraction and subsequent fractional distillation from botanical sources; synthetically, from benzyl chloride and lime or by oxidation of toluene
Potential ExposureIn manufacture of perfumes, dyes, and cinnamic acid; as solvent; in flavors.
storageBenzaldehyde should be kept stored in a tightly closed container and protected against physical damage. Storage of the chemical substance outside or in a detached area is preferred, whereas inside storage should be in a standard flammable liquids storage room or cabinet. Benzaldehyde should be kept separated from oxidizing materials. Also, storage and use areas should be no smoking areas. Containers of this material may be hazardous when empty since they retain product residues (vapors, liquid); observe all warnings and precautions listed for the product
ShippingUN1990 Benzaldehyde, Hazard class: 9; Labels: 9—Miscellaneous hazardous material.
Purification MethodsTo diminish its rate of oxidation, benzaldehyde usually contains additives such as hydroquinone or catechol. It can be purified via its bisulfite addition compound but usually distillation (under nitrogen at reduced pressure) is sufficient. Prior to distillation it is washed with NaOH or 10% Na2CO3 (until no more CO2 is evolved), then with saturated Na2SO3 and H2O, followed by drying with CaSO4, MgSO4 or CaCl2. [Beilstein 7 IV 505.]
IncompatibilitiesThe substance reacts with air, forming explosive peroxides. Reacts violently with performic acid, oxidants, aluminum, iron, bases, and phenol, causing fire and explosion hazard. May self-ignite if absorbed in combustible material with large surface area, or otherwise dispersed over large areas. Reacts with rust, amines, alkalies, strong bases, reducing agents such as hydrideds and active metals.
Waste DisposalIncineration; add combustible solvent and spray into incinerator with afterburner.
PrecautionsWorkers should be careful when using benzaldehyde because there is a risk of spontaneous combustion. It may ignite spontaneously if it is absorbed onto rags, cleaning cloths, clothing, sawdust, diatomaceous earth (kieselguhr), activated charcoal, or other materials with large surface areas in workplaces. Workers should avoid handling the chemical substance and should not cut, puncture, or weld on or near the container. Exposure of benzaldehyde to air, light, heat, hot surfaces such as hot pipes, sparks, open flames, and other ignition sources should be avoided. Workers should wear proper personal protective clothing and equipment
Benzaldehyde Preparation Products And Raw materials
CARBON MONOXIDE Benzyl chloride Benzyl alcohol Zinc oxide Toluene Chlorine Palladium Molybdenum trioxide Zinc phosphate Ozone Amygdalin trans-Cinnamaldehyde Aluminium chloride hexahydrate Cinnamon oil Sodium carbonate
DL-Mandelic acid FLAVANONE 2-amino-5-chloro-diphenyl methanol 1-[2-[2-hydroxy-3-(propylamino)propoxy]phenyl]-3-phenylpropan-1-one hydrochloride TRANS-2-PHENYL-1-CYCLOPROPANECARBOXYLIC ACID whitener WG for wool Benzenemethanol, ar-methyl-, acetate BENZYLHYDRAZINE DIHYDROCHLORIDE alpha-Hexylcinnamaldehyde Diaveridine Acid Blue 90 2,4,5-TRIPHENYLIMIDAZOLE L-Phenylglycine 3,4-Dichlorobenzylamine Magentagreencrystals Reactive Blue BRF Benzalacetone 5,5-Diphenylhydantoin 1-AMINO-4-METHYLPIPERAZINE DIHYDROCHLORIDE MONOHYDRATE 2-(Acetylamino)-3-phenyl-2-propenoic acid Methyl 1H-indole-2-carboxylate Acid Blue 9 2-[2-(4-Fluorophenyl)-2-oxo-1-phenylethyl]-4-methyl-3-oxo-N-phenylpentanamide N,N'-Dibenzyl ethylenediamine diacetate Bis(dibenzylideneacetone)palladium ASTRAZON BRILLIANT RED 4G Reactive Blue 104 Nifedipine Epalrestat 4-Hydroxybenzylideneacetone 2-PHENYL-1.3-DIOXOLANE-4-METHANOL 3,5-DIPHENYLPYRAZOLE 2-((E)-2-Hydroxy-3-phenylacryloyl)benzoic acid ,97% (R)-(+)-N-Benzyl-1-phenylethylamine N,N'-BISBENZYLIDENEBENZIDINE Nitrotetrazolium blue chloride L-Arginine hydrochloride (E)-3-Benzylidene-3H-isochromene-1,4-dione ,97% 2,3,5-Triphenyltetrazolium chloride Tris(dibenzylideneacetone)dipalladium
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|US $1.00 / KG||1KG||99%||20T||Shaanxi Dideu Medichem Co. Ltd|
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BENZOYL BROMIDE 4'-Bromopropiophenone 2-BROMO-2-METHYLPROPIOPHENONE 4'-BROMOVALEROPHENONE 4-BROMOBENZOPHENONE 2-BROMO-2-PHENYLACETOPHENONE Benzaldehyde p-Hydroxybenzaldehyde 4-Fluorobenzaldehyde 4-Chlorobenzaldehyde BENZOICACID 3-(4-ISOPROPYLPHENYL)ISOBUTYRALDEHYDE AQUANTRAAL 2-Chlorobenzaldehyde 4-Dimethylaminobenzaldehyde 1-Nonanal Salicylaldehyde p-Anisaldehyde
- BENZALDEHYDE, 99%BENZALDEHYDE, 99%BENZALDEHYDE, 99%BENZALDEHYDE, 99%
- Glycopyrrolate EP Impurity F
- Artifical essential oil of almond
- Artificial Almond Oil
- Artificial bitter almond oil
- Benzaldehyde FFC
- Benzene carbaldehyde
- Benzene methylal
- Benzoyl hydride
- Ethereal oil of bitter almonds
- NA 1989
- Phenylmethanal benzenecarboxaldehyde
- Benzaldehyde 99+ %
- Natural benzaldehyde
- BENZALDEHYDE TECH
- Acetic anhydride natural
- BENZALDEHYDE, FREE OF CHLORINE
- BENZALDEHYDE, REDISTILLED, 99.5+%
- BENZALDEHYDE 98+% NATURAL FCC
- BENZALDEHYDE 98+% FCC
- BENZALDEHYDE, STANDARD FOR GC
- BENZALDEHYDE, REAGENTPLUS, >=99%
- BENZALDEHYDE EXTRA PURE
- BENZALDEHYDE, 99% NATURAL
- BENZALDEHYDE, GC STANDARD
- BENZALDEHYDE, 98% NATURAL
- BENZALDEHYDE, 98+%
- BENZALDEHYDE CERTIFIED
- Benzaldehyde (technical)
- Benzene carbonal (technical)
- Benzoic aldehyde (technical)
- Benzaldehyde (natural)
- Benzene carbonal (natural)
- Benzoic aldehyde (natural)
- Benzaldehyde (synthetic)
- Benzene carbonal (synthetic)
- Benzoic aldehyde (synthetic)
- Oil of almond (synthetic)
- Benzaldehyde, pure, 98+%
- Benzaldehyde, redistilled, pure, 99.5+%
- BENZALDEHYDE NF FCC KOSHER
- BENZALDEHYDE FOR SYNTHESIS 25 L
- BENZALDEHYDE FOR SYNTHESIS 1 L
- BENZALDEHYDE FOR SYNTHESIS 100 ML