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        Fluorene

        Fluorene
        Fluorene structure
        CAS No.
        86-73-7
        Chemical Name:
        Fluorene
        Synonyms
        uorene;FLUORENE;NSC 6787;9H-FLUORENE;FLUOCINONIDE;Fluorene 98%;Fluorene,98%;2,3-BENZINDENE;2,3-Benzoindene;9H-Fluorene 98%
        CBNumber:
        CB3717011
        Molecular Formula:
        C13H10
        Formula Weight:
        166.2185
        MOL File:
        86-73-7.mol

        Fluorene Properties

        Melting point:
        111-114 °C(lit.)
        Boiling point:
        298 °C(lit.)
        Density 
        1.2
        vapor pressure 
        13 hPa (146 °C)
        refractive index 
        1.6470
        Flash point:
        151 °C
        storage temp. 
        APPROX 4°C
        solubility 
        0.002g/l insoluble
        pka
        >15 (Christensen et al., 1975)
        form 
        Crystalline Powder
        color 
        Almost white to light brown
        Water Solubility 
        insoluble
        Merck 
        14,4155
        BRN 
        1363491
        Henry's Law Constant
        1.89(x 10-5 atm?m3/mol) at 4 °C, 12.5 at 25 °C (dynamic equilibrium method, Bamford et al., 1999)
        Stability:
        Stable. Combustible. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents.
        InChIKey
        NIHNNTQXNPWCJQ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
        CAS DataBase Reference
        86-73-7(CAS DataBase Reference)
        NIST Chemistry Reference
        Fluorene(86-73-7)
        EPA Substance Registry System
        Fluorene (86-73-7)
        SAFETY
        • Risk and Safety Statements
        Symbol(GHS) 
        GHS02,GHS06,GHS08,GHS09
        Signal word  Danger
        Hazard statements  H400-H225-H301+H311+H331-H370-H412-H410
        Precautionary statements  P210-P260-P273-P280-P301+P310-P311-P501-P391
        Hazard Codes  N,T,F,Xn,Xi
        Risk Statements  50/53-39/23/24/25-23/24/25-11-67-65-38-36/38-36/37/38-52/53-20
        Safety Statements  60-61-24/25-45-36/37-16-7-62-33-24-22-36/37/39-27-26-25-9
        RIDADR  UN 3077 9/PG 3
        WGK Germany  3
        RTECS  LL5670000
        Hazard Note  Harmful
        TSCA  Yes
        HazardClass  9
        PackingGroup  III
        HS Code  29029080
        Toxicity Drinking water standard: No MCLGs or MCLs have been proposed, however, a DWEL of 1 mg/L was recommended (U.S. EPA, 2000).

        Fluorene price More Price(14)

        Manufacturer Product number Product description CAS number Packaging Price Updated Buy
        Sigma-Aldrich 128333 Fluorene 98% 86-73-7 5g $31.3 2019-12-02 Buy
        Sigma-Aldrich 128333 Fluorene 98% 86-73-7 100g $72.5 2019-12-02 Buy
        TCI Chemical F0017 Fluorene >95.0%(GC) 86-73-7 25g $17 2019-12-02 Buy
        TCI Chemical F0017 Fluorene >95.0%(GC) 86-73-7 500g $126 2019-12-02 Buy
        Alfa Aesar L02124 Fluorene, 98+% 86-73-7 25g $24.4 2019-12-02 Buy

        Fluorene Chemical Properties,Uses,Production

        Chemical Properties

        white crystals

        Chemical Properties

        Fluorene, when pure, is found as dazzling white flakes or small, crystalline plates. It is fluorescent when impure. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are compounds containing multiple benzene rings and are also called polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons.

        Physical properties

        Small white leaflets or crystalline flakes from ethanol. Fluorescent when impure.

        Uses

        Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as micropollutants.

        Definition

        ChEBI: An ortho-fused tricyclic hydrocarbon that is a major component of fossil fuels and their derivatives

        General Description

        White leaflets. Sublimes easily under a vacuum. Fluorescent when impure.

        Air & Water Reactions

        Insoluble in water.

        Reactivity Profile

        Vigorous reactions, sometimes amounting to explosions, can result from the contact between aromatic hydrocarbons, such as Fluorene, and strong oxidizing agents. They can react exothermically with bases and with diazo compounds. Substitution at the benzene nucleus occurs by halogenation (acid catalyst), nitration, sulfonation, and the Friedel-Crafts reaction.

        Hazard

        Questionable carcinogen.

        Health Hazard

        Acute toxicity in animals is very low. AnLD50 (intraperitoneal) in mice is 2000 mg/kg.Carcinogenicity of this compound in animalsis not well established. It tested negative in ahistidine reversion–Ames test.

        Health Hazard

        ACUTE/CHRONIC HAZARDS: Fire hazards: Slight, when exposed to heat or flame.

        Potential Exposure

        Fluorene is used in resins, dyes, and is a chemical intermediate.

        Source

        Fluorene was detected in groundwater beneath a former coal gasification plant in Seattle, WA at a concentration of 140 μg/L (ASTR, 1995). Present in diesel fuel and corresponding aqueous phase (distilled water) at concentrations of 350 to 900 mg/L and 12 to 26 g/L, respectively (Lee et al., 1992). Schauer et al. (1999) reported fluorene in diesel fuel at a concentration of 52 g/g and in a diesel-powered medium-duty truck exhaust at an emission rate of 34.6 g/km. Diesel fuel obtained from a service station in Schlieren, Switzerland contained fluorene at an estimated concentration of 170 mg/L (Schluep et al., 2001).
        Based on laboratory analysis of 7 coal tar samples, fluorene concentrations ranged from 1,100 to 12,000 ppm (EPRI, 1990). Lao et al. (1975) reported a fluorene concentration of 27.39 g/kg in a coal tar sample. Detected in 1-yr aged coal tar film and bulk coal tar at an identical concentration of 4,400 mg/kg (Nelson et al., 1996). A high-temperature coal tar contained fluorene at an average concentration of 0.64 wt % (McNeil, 1983). Identified in high-temperature coal tar pitches at concentrations ranging from 800 to 4,000 mg/kg (Arrendale and Rogers, 1981). Lee et al. (1992a) equilibrated 8 coal tars with distilled water at 25 °C. The maximum concentration of fluorene observed in the aqueous phase was 0.3 mg/L.
        Fluorene was detected in asphalt fumes at an average concentration of 34.95 ng/m3 (Wang et al., 2001).
        Nine commercially available creosote samples contained fluorene at concentrations ranging from 19,000 to 73,000 mg/kg (Kohler et al., 2000).
        Thomas and Delfino (1991) equilibrated contaminant-free groundwater collected from Gainesville, FL with individual fractions of three individual petroleum products at 24–25 °C for 24 h. The aqueous phase was analyzed for organic compounds via U.S. EPA approved test method 625. Average fluorene concentrations reported in water-soluble fractions of unleaded gasoline, kerosene, and diesel fuel were 1, 3, and 10 μg/L, respectively.
        Fluorene was detected in soot generated from underventilated combustion of natural gas doped with toluene (3 mole %) (Tolocka and Miller, 1995).
        Schauer et al. (2001) measured organic compound emission rates for volatile organic compounds, gas-phase semi-volatile organic compounds, and particle-phase organic compounds from the residential (fireplace) combustion of pine, oak, and eucalyptus. The gas-phase emission rates of fluorene were 4.44 mg/kg of pine burned, 3.83 mg/kg of oak burned, and 2.613 mg/kg of eucalyptus burned.
        California Phase II reformulated gasoline contained fluorene at a concentration of 4.35 mg/kg. Gas-phase tailpipe emission rates from gasoline-powered automobiles with and without catalytic converters were 9.72 and 358 μg/km, respectively (Schauer et al., 2002).
        Under atmospheric conditions, a low rank coal (0.5–1 mm particle size) from Spain was burned in a fluidized bed reactor at seven different temperatures (50 °C increments), beginning at 650 °C. The combustion experiment was also conducted at different amounts of excess oxygen (5 to 40%) and different flow rates (700 to 1,100 L/h). At 20% excess oxygen and a flow rate of 860 L/h, the amount of fluorine emitted ranged from 850.7 ng/kg at 950 °C to 3,632.8 ng/kg at 750 °C. The greatest amount of PAHs emitted were observed at 750 °C (Mastral et al., 1999).
        In one study, fluorene comprised about 7.6% of polyaromatic hydrocarbons in creosote (Grifoll et al., 1995).
        Identified as an impurity in commcerially available acenaphthene (Marciniak, 2002).
        Typical concentration of fluorene in a heavy pyrolysis oil is 1.6 wt % (Chevron Phillips, May 2003).

        Environmental Fate

        Biological. Fluorene was statically incubated in the dark at 25 °C with yeast extract and settled domestic wastewater inoculum. Significant biodegradation with gradual adaptation was observed. At concentrations of 5 and 10 mg/L, biodegradation yields at the end of 4 wk of incubation were 77 and 45%, respectively (Tabak et al., 1981).
        Photolytic. Fluorene reacts with photochemically produced OH radicals in the atmosphere. The atmospheric half-life was estimated to range from 6.81 to 68.1 h (Atkinson, 1987). Behymer and Hites (1985) determined the effect of different substrates on the rate of photooxidation of fluorene (25 μg/g substrate) using a rotary photoreactor. The photolytic half-lives of fluorene using silica gel, alumina, and fly ash were 110, 62, and 37 h, respectively. Gas-phase reaction rate constants for OH radicals, NO3 radicals, and ozone at 24 °C were 1.6 x 10-11, 3.5 x 10-15, and <2 x 10-19 in cm3/molecule?sec, respectively (Kwok et al., 1997).
        Chemical/Physical. Oxidation by ozone to fluorenone has been reported (Nikolaou, 1984). Chlorination of fluorene in polluted humus poor lake water gave a chlorinated derivative tentatively identified as 2-chlorofluorene (Johnsen et al., 1989). This compound was also identified as a chlorination product of fluorene at low pH (<4) (Oyler et al., 1983). It was suggested that the chlorination of fluorene in tap water accounted for the presence of chlorofluorene (Shiraishi et al., 1985).

        Shipping

        UN3077 Environmentally hazardous substances, solid, n.o.s., Hazard class: 9; Labels: 9-Miscellaneous haz ardous material, Technical Name Required.

        Purification Methods

        Purify fluorene by chromatography of CCl4 or pet ether (b 40-60o) solution on alumina, with *benzene as eluent. Crystallise it from 95% EtOH, 90% acetic acid and again from EtOH. Crystallisation using glacial acetic acid retains an impurity which is removed by partial mercuration and precipitation with LiBr [Brown et al. J Am Chem Soc 84 1229 1962]. It has also been crystallised from hexane, or *benzene/EtOH, distilled under vacuum and purified by zone refining. [Gorman et al. J Am Chem Soc 107 4404 1985, Beilstein 5 IV 2142.]

        Incompatibilities

        Incompatible with oxidizers (chlorates, nitrates, peroxides, permanganates, perchlorates, chlorine, bromine, fluorine, etc.); contact may cause fires or explo sions. Keep away from alkaline materials, strong bases, strong acids, oxoacids, epoxides. Compound can react exo thermically with bases and with diazo compounds. Substitution at the benzene nucleus occurs by halogenation (acid catalyst), nitration, sulfonation, and the Friedel Crafts reaction.

        Waste Disposal

        Persons in charge of vessels or facilities are required to notify the National Response Center (NRC) immediately when there is a release of this designated hazardous substance, in an amount equal to or greater than its RQ listed above. The toll free number of the NRC is (800) 424-8802; In the Washington D.C. metro politan area call (202) 426-2675. The rule for determining when notification is required is stated in 40 CFR 302.4 (Section IV. D.3.b).

        Fluorene Preparation Products And Raw materials

        Raw materials

        Preparation Products


        Fluorene Suppliers

        Global( 329)Suppliers
        Supplier Tel Fax Email Country ProdList Advantage
        Hangzhou QiFei Chemical Co., Ltd. 571-28950939-
        0571-28950939 hzqifeihuagong@163.com; China 30 55
        Hangzhou YiDi Industrial Co., Ltd. 0571-82609104-
        0571-82691158 yidipharma@163.com China 98 58
        Hangzhou Langmai New Material Co., Ltd. 0571-86722612-
        0571-89923666 sales@chemlongman.com; China 244 58
        J & K SCIENTIFIC LTD. 010-82848833- ;010-82848833-
        86-10-82849933 jkinfo@jkchemical.com;market6@jkchemical.com China 96505 76
        Meryer (Shanghai) Chemical Technology Co., Ltd. 21-61259100-
        86-21-61259102 sh@meryer.com China 40268 62
        Alfa Aesar 400-610-6006; 021-67582000
        021-67582001/03/05 saleschina@alfa-asia.com China 30163 84
        TCI (Shanghai) Development Co., Ltd. 021-67121386 / 800-988-0390
        021-67121385 Sales-CN@TCIchemicals.com China 24555 81
        ShangHai DEMO Chemical Co.,Ltd 400-021-7337 qq:2355568890
        0086-21-50182339 sales@demochem.com; export1@demochem.com China 2584 57
        Beijing dtftchem Technology Co., Ltd. 13651141086; 86(10)60275028、60275820
        86 (10) 60270825 dtftchem@sina.com China 3393 62
        BeiJing Hwrk Chemicals Limted 21-51691807-
        021-55236763 peter.shi@hwrkchemical.com; China 14684 55

        View Lastest Price from Fluorene manufacturers

        Image Release date Product Price Min. Order Purity Supply Ability Manufacturer
        2019-12-31 Fluorene
        86-73-7
        US $0.00-0.00 / KG 1g 99% 2000tons Shaanxi Dideu Medichem Co. Ltd
        2018-08-09 Fluorene
        86-73-7
        US $1.00 / KG 1KG 98% 1 career henan chemical co

        Fluorene Spectrum


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